Qatar was a British protectorate until gaining its independence in whereby it became an absolute monarchy governed under the rule of the Al Thani family.
The first government of King Sobhuza II was headed by a member of the royal family, Prime An introduction to the protocols commonly used in majority of law enforcement institutions Prince Makhosini Dlamini, the leader of the Imbokodvo National Movement INM ; the cabinet consisted overwhelmingly of aristocrats, while a white finance minister reflected settler interests and some members of the cabinet were businessmen or professionals Levin The government thus largely reflected the power that had been accumulated by the monarchy and the traditional aristocracy and excluded the growing middle and working classes that had voted for the opposition and the peasants who had provided the INM with its overwhelming victory Booth Labour policy after independence continued to privilege the interests of industry owners over those of workers, for union activity remained tightly controlled, the grievance indvuna system that had resulted in the strikes was reintroduced and state-established wage boards were dominated by government and management Levin The number of registered unions declined from 15 to nine; employers preferred to work through works councils, while the aristocracy favoured the indvuna system and the state discouraged trade unionism Levin87, 88; Macmillan, As a result, "Between and the real living standards of the working class declined significantly.
More than half of the labour force was faced with constant or declining money wages. The government followed an aggressive policy of Africanisation in the public and private sectors and, concomitant to that, expanded the educational system rapidly, to broaden its support in the middle classes Booth70; Levin New schools were built and teacher training was increased Booth Inthe University College of Swaziland opened Booth The policy of Africanisation and educational expansion led to declines in standards in the civil service and examination pass rates for students Booth58, Even so, the growth of the education sector could not keep pace with population growth Booth The income from mineral rights was augmented by loans facilitated by the UN and the Commonwealth and used in joint ventures, share acquisitions and land purchases to create ventures that were run as private firms Levin85, 86; Macmillan, The operations of Tibiyo Taka Ngwane were not made accountable to Parliament and were not open to public scrutiny Levin A continual grievance, unresolved as yet, was the loss of huge tracts Swazi territory to the Boers in the 19th century, which later became part of South Africa Booth Europeans owned almost all of the title deed land, the most productive and best developed part of the country, and the selling prices for this land was greatly inflated by speculative activities Booth71; Levin The British government refused to finance the repurchase of the land Booth The Land Speculation Control Act of attempted to make this land available for Swazi purchase by bringing down the prices through control measures that included a control board to govern land sales to non-Swazi citizens and the confiscation of the portion of a land sale regarded as the result of speculation Levin94; Booth The settlers vigorously opposed the measures since they threatened a collapse in land values in the short term and increased the risks involved in capital investment for future economic development over the longer term Booth These fears did not materialise since the Land Control Board did not hamper sales to foreign investors and capital continued to flow in, but it did not benefit the land-hungry peasantry, who still could not afford to buy land, but rather Tibiyo Taka Ngwane and small numbers of Swazi capitalist farmers Booth71; Levin86, Since the bulk of the population was rural and concentrated on the Swazi Nation Land, in the Rural Development Areas Programme was initiated to improve the income of peasants on Swazi National Land by adding elements of commercial production to subsistence farming, with financial aid from Britain, the World Bank and other donors Levin, Despite large investments only marginal gains were made at very high costs and the project wound down in LevinBooth In the year proceeding the election the opposition Ngwane National Liberatory Congress NNLC split over plans to centralise leadership and make Dr Ambrose Zwane president for life, but Zwane managed to gain control over the main faction Booth70; Levin Tensions also emerged within the ruling INM between modernisers and traditionalists Booth The elections were won by the INM who took 21 seats, but the Mpumalanga constituency, with its high numbers of farm workers, small farmers and middle class voters, was won by the Zwane faction of the NNLC, which gave them the remaining three seats Levin96; Booth72, See May General Election for more detail.
As economic growth would see the rise of these classes as a proportion of voters in the future, this outcome was regarded as a threat to the long term power of the monarchy and hegemony of the aristocracy; the hostility of Sobhuza to multi-party democracy, mollified by overwhelming victory of the INM inwas revived see Pre-independence General Election Booth72, On 25 May, five days after the election, an NNLC Member of Parliament was served with an order of deportation, as an undesirable alien, and matters were quickly escalated into a full-scale constitutional crisis Levin96; Booth73; Macmillan, In the High Court, the NNLC obtained an order declaring him a citizen, so Parliament passed an amendment in November creating a Tribunal through which his citizenship was revoked, but the Appeal Court declared the amendment unconstitutional Levin96, 97; Booth73; Macmillan, On 12 Aprilover the protests of the NNLC, Parliament passed a motion that "called on the king to devise ways and means of dealing with the crisis" Levinand then members decamped to the royal palace at Lobomba Levin; Macmillan; Proctor There Sobhuza met them and granted their request by suspending the constitution, dismissing Parliament and assuming all power, legislative, executive and judicial Booth73; Levin; Proctor He furthermore proclaimed that he would rule by decree in council with the cabinet and that all political parties, meetings and public activities were banned Booth73; Levin A decree was issued providing for a day detention without trial, renewable as frequently "as deemed necessary in the public interest" Levin A further decree settled the citizenship issue: Citizenship could be acquired only by allegiance to a chief ukukhontathus "hardening the distinction between the Swazi of Swaziland and the Swazi of South Africa, and increased the insecurity of people of marginal status" Macmillan, This was followed by the detention of four of the leaders of the NNLC, including Zwane, who was then forced into exile and allowed to return on condition that he abjure politics Booth73; Levin, In the period that followed opposition, leaders were co-opted, silenced or forced into exile Booth The elimination of political opposition led to industrial and social unrest.
Nevertheless, having neutralised the NNLC and removed all vehicles of public participation in political life, the monarchy was free to mould the constitutional order more to its liking Levin, A Journey from JNDI/LDAP Manipulation to Remote Code Execution Dream Land.
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Alfred Sgcibelo Magagula is a member of the Centre for Human Rights and Development. He holds a student B.A. (Law) and LL.B degrees obtained from the University of Swaziland. Issues in American Copyright Law and Practice.
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