Sovereign Grand Inspector General S:. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
Lieutenant Alfred Rahbeck first collector of lega ivory figurines in H. Jenssen-Tusch, Skandinaver i Congo.
Lega ivory figures collected by Rahbeck before in H. Although the Lega are not organized into a state system, their sense of historical and cultural unity rooted in a common language, common historical experiences, common genealogical charts and a common set of basic institutions and values is very strong.
The Lega form a stateless society. There are no hereditary chiefs. The relatively simple segmentary lineage system, however, is complicated by the hierarchically organized bwami association, whose authority and power are widespread.
According to Biebuyck, bwami is so integrated with all aspects of Lega thinking and living that it must be very old among the Lega. He believes that its fundamental structure and organization seem to antedate the emergence of the Lega as a distinct people.
It is also a school of art because it creates, produces, uses and explains thousands of pieces of sculpture. One of the most climactic kindi rites featuring a vast display of ivory figurines is called kinsamba which alludes to a multitude of white mushrooms.
When the owners of individual important ivory figurines die, the statue is displayed on their tombs. Exposure of the figurines on a tomb gives them a mystic dimension since they are impregnated with the vital force of the deceased.
When another initiate is seriously ill and the normal pharmacopeia fail to save him, he is given water in which surface dust rubbed from the figurines has been mixed. The patient is said to drink the maginga, in order to absorb some of the vital force contained in the ivory statue as sacred object intimately associated with their living and dead owners.
The average size of a Lega ivory figure, calculated using the measurements of published examples, is Being a precious material, the size of the figurine is directly proportional to its importance.
Because of their uniqueness they play a crucial role, are kept for the entire ritual community and are always made of old heavily patinated ivory.
There are Lega pieces at the M. Biebuyck who had studied all ivory and bone figurines in the M. In my own files, I have another 80 ivory statuettes.
Lega ivory statuettes in the Late Geometric Style in C. Delahaize, Les Warega, Bruxelles,plate Illus. Delahaize, Les Warega, Bruxelles,plate An ivory figure that leaves the atelier of the carver is unfinished because it lacks the shiny reddish and yellowish patination that comes with usage of prolonged and repeated treatments with ointments.
The figurines are rubbed with a form of castor oil mombo plain or mixed with red powder and then polished to a shine with lukenga leaves and perfumed with bulago scent. This process is called kubongia, meaning to bring in harmony, to produce unison.
The initiates give the figurines the same treatment with oil, red powder and scent as they give their own body. For the Lega, the glossiness and the paleness of the reddish and yellowish hues that are the basis of patination are definitely the highest canons of beauty.
Lega figures have very few distinctive stylistic features such as hairstyles, scarifications, gestures or carved status symbols.
They show parsimony of expression and succinctness of forms which fits admirably the mystery surrounding the uses and meanings of them in a closed initiation context.
Heads can be round or flat with many showing the classical concave heart-shaped faces while others show a straight plane. Singles formal features such as the eyes, noses, ears mouth, neck, torso, legs, breasts or genitalia show a wide variety.
The surface decoration is often nonexistent or restricted to a few basic motifs such as blackened dots, engraved circle-dots and linear designs presented in rows of dots or circle-dots or lines that slanted, crossed or arranged in a triangular or herringbone motif.
The numerous styles of figurines cut across different regions and autonomous communities in Legaland. Similar forms recur in different regions and groups.
For instance, Biebuyck collected from sixteen kindi initiates belonging all to the same Mumwa clan sixteen ivory and bone sculpture showing the entire spectrum of formal variation of Lega art. This group of sixteen sculptures demonstrates that stylistic markers could be invented by certain groups and could spread to other parts of the country because persons, sculptures and rites travelled.
During rites initiates could see other models and be inspired by them if they were artists. Alfred Rahbeck a Danish officer, born in Aarrhus, Danemark, killed in Kabambare,who was a sous-lieutenant in the Dhanis E. V, Bruxelles, Albert De Wit,illus. He never travelled in Africa and would buy mainly from travelers and sailors coming back from Congo on the regular steamship lines arriving in Antwerpen.
French dealer Charles Ratton considered that the Pareyn collection was the best source for the art of Congo. His short introduction to an un-illustrated auction catalogue in at Hotel Drouot, Paris of a very fine collection of 29 Lega ivories is the first very short essay on Lega art I know of and is worth quoting: If my memory serves me well, it is T.
Joyce who was the first curator to exhibit at the British Museum an ivory figurine and a mask with a red surface, coming from the fare away territories of the Northeast of the Tanganyika.It's A Wonderful Life. A movie directed by Frank Capra, released December 19, A movie directed by Frank Capra, released December 19, After you have memorized it, Robin's Web is a good place to continue the study of this great movie.
Posts about Archaeological Museum written by GIACOBBE GIUSTI.
Giacobbe Giusti, a new world This blog is run by G. Giusti Menu. it was given the inventory number “EA 24”, “EA” standing for “Egyptian Antiquities”. lapses into language closer to that of the demotic register that the priests more commonly used in everyday life.
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At the same time, however, it told truths about the power relations between Genoa and France: fidelity to the French crown had become a precondition of the city-state’s continued existence, just as Tommasina’s own life relied on the king’s.
Much of the research for this essay was undertaken in in preparation for a lecture to be given at the symposium, Gothic Art in the Gilded Age, held at the Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida.
inventors, writers and suppliers This index lists a number of inventors, manufacturers, vendors and authors who have been involved in technical aspects of the art of pastel, including authors of the most important early treatises and some critics who have been particularly influential.