Morocco —58 With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy.
However, the colonization and exploration of the Americas also transformed the world, eventually adding 31 new nation-states to the global community. On the one hand, the cultural and religious arrogance that led settlers to deny anything of value in pre-Columbian America was destructive, even genocidal.
On the other hand, many of those who settled in the New World were also social and political visionaries, who found opportunities there, on what for them was a tabula rasa, to aim at achieving their highest ideals of justiceequality, and freedom. Some of the world's most stable democracies exist as a result of this transformative process.
Disease and population loss The European and Asian lifestyle included a long history of sharing close quarters with domesticated animals such as cowspigssheepgoatshorsesand various domesticated fowlwhich had resulted in epidemic diseases unknown in the Americas.
Thus, the large-scale contact with Europeans after introduced novel germs to the indigenous people of the Americas. Epidemics of smallpox,typhusinfluenzadiphtheriaand measles swept ahead of initial European contact,   killing between 10 million and 20 million  people, up to 95 percent of the indigenous population of the Americas.
Mann says that "what happened after Columbus was like a thousand kudzus everywhere. This population debate has often had ideological underpinnings.
Robert Royal writes that "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe often favoring wildly higher figures. Indigenous populations in most areas of the Americas reached a low point by the early twentieth century, and in a number of cases started to climb again.
The number of deaths caused by European-indigenous warfare has proven difficult to determine. In his book, The Wild Frontier: Osborn sought to tally every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United Statesfrom first contact to the closing of the frontierand determined that 9, people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans, and 7, people died from those perpetrated by Europeans.
Osborn defines an atrocity as the murdertortureor mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The first conquests were made by the Spanish and the Portuguese. In the Treaty of Tordesillasratified by the Popethese two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world between themselves, with a line drawn through South America.
Over this same time frame, Portugal conquered much of eastern South America, naming it Brazil. Other European nations soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they had not negotiated.
England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the sixteenth century, but these met with failure.
However, in the following century, the two kingdoms, along with the Netherlandssucceeded in establishing permanent colonies. Some of these were on Caribbean islands, which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease, while others were in eastern North America, which had not been colonized by Spain north of Florida.
In the eighteenth century, Denmark — Norway revived its former colonies in Greenland, while the Russian Empire gained a foothold in Alaska. As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce.
Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates. Early state-sponsored colonists The first phase of European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbussponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as "the Indies.
Amerigo Vespucciworking for Portugal in voyages from toestablished that Columbus had discovered a new set of continents. Cartographers still use a Latinized version of his first name, America, for the two continents. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown.
Spanish Empire under king Philip II These explorations were followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards, having just finished the Reconquista of Spain from Muslim rule, were the first to colonize the Americas, applying the same model of governing to the former Al-Andalus as to their territories of the New World.
As in the Iberian Peninsula, the inhabitants of Hispaniola were given new landmasters, while religious orders handled the local administration. Progressively the encomienda system, which granted land to European settlers, was set in place. A relatively small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided by disease epidemics and divisions among native ethnic groups.
Over the first century and a half after Columbus's voyages, the native population of the Americas plummeted by an estimated 80 percent from around 50 million in to eight million in mostly by outbreaks of Old World diseases but also by several massacres and forced labor the mita was re-established in the old Inca Empireand the tequitl—equivalent of the mita—in the Aztec Empire.
The conquistadores replaced the native American oligarchies, in part through miscegenation with the local elites.
Two years later, Charles V signed the New Laws which replaced the Laws of Burgos of prohibiting slavery and the repartimientos, but also claiming as his own all the American lands and all of the autochthonous people as his own subjects.
When in Maythe Pope Alexander VI enacted the Inter caetera bull granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spain, he requested in exchange an evangelization of the people. Thus, during Columbus 's second voyage, Benedictine friars accompanied him, along with twelve other priests.
As slavery was prohibited between Christians, and could only be imposed on non-Christian prisoners of war or on men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the sixteenth century.
Inthe papal bull Sublimis Deus recognized that Native Americans possessed soulsthus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. The Christic Institute was given an unprecedented million-dollar fine for daring to bring the lawsuit.
See a brief description of what happened to them in Jonathan Vankin and John Whelan's 50 Greatest Conspiracies of all Time, pp.
Mahapadma Nanda became King of Magadha and created what looks like the first "Empire" in Northern India.
While Indian history begins with some confidence with the Mauyras, the Nandas are now emerging into the light of history with a little more distinctness.  The Christic Institute was given an unprecedented million-dollar fine for daring to bring the lawsuit.
See a brief description of what happened to them in Jonathan Vankin and John Whelan's 50 Greatest Conspiracies of all Time, pp. The Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (Persian: کودتای ۲۸ مرداد ), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August , orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation .
This article is part of a series on the: History of Hong Kong; Timeline; Prehistoric Imperial ( BC – s) Bao'an County and Xin'an County British Hong Kong Colonial (s–s) Convention of .
The start of the European Colonization of the Americas is typically dated to , although there was at least one earlier colonization effort. The first known Europeans to reach the Americas are believed to have been the Vikings ("Norse") during the eleventh century, who established several colonies in Greenland and one short-lived settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in the area the Norse called.